Information on cancer

Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis.

There are over 200 different types of cancer, each with its own methods of diagnosis and treatment. You can find out more about specific types of cancer by using the links on this page.

Spotting signs of cancer

Changes to your body’s normal processes or symptoms that are out of the ordinary can sometimes be an early sign of cancer.

For example, a lump that suddenly appears on your body, unexplained bleeding or changes to your bowel habits are all symptoms that need to be checked by a doctor.

In many cases, your symptoms will not be related to cancer and will be caused by other, non-cancerous health conditions. However, it is still important that you see Dr. B C Shah so your symptoms can be investigated.

Reducing your risk of cancer

Making some simple changes to your lifestyle can significantly reduce your risk of developing cancer. For example, healthy eating, taking regular exercise and not smoking will all help lower your risk.

How common is cancer?

Cancer is a common condition.  More than one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime.

The most common types of cancer are:

  • Breast cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Bowel cancer
  • Bladder cancer
  • Uterine (womb) cancer

Cancer treatment

Each specific type of cancer has its own set of treatment methods.

However, many cases of cancer are treated using chemotherapy (powerful cancer-killing medication) and radiotherapy (the controlled use of high energy X-rays). Surgery is also sometimes carried out to remove cancerous tissue.

Waiting times

Accurately diagnosing cancer can take weeks or months. As cancer often develops slowly, over several years, waiting for a few weeks will not usually impact on the effectiveness of treatment.

Patients suspected of having cancer and urgently referred by their doctor, should have no more than a two week wait to see a specialist.

In cases where cancer has been confirmed, patients should wait no more than 31 days from the decision to treat to the start of their treatment.

Signs and symptoms of cancer

It is important to be aware of any unexplained changes to your body, such as the sudden appearance of a lump, blood in your urine or a change in your usual bowel habits

These symptoms are often caused by other, non-cancerous illnesses, but it is important you see Dr. B C Shah so he can investigate.

Other potential signs and symptoms of cancer are outlined below.

Lump in your breast

See Dr. B C Shah if you notice a lump in your breast, or if you have a lump that is rapidly increasing in size elsewhere on your body.

Dr. B C Shah will refer you to a specialist for tests if he thinks you may have cancer.

Coughing, chest pain and breathlessness

You should visit Dr. B C Shah if you have had a cough for more than three weeks.

Symptoms such as shortness of breath or chest pain may be a sign of an acute (severe) condition, such as pneumonia (a lung infection). Go to see Dr. B C Shah straight away if you experience these types of symptoms.

Changes in bowel habits

Go to see Dr. B C Shah if you have experienced one of the changes listed below and it has lasted for more than a few weeks:

  • blood in your stools
  • diarrhoea or constipation for no obvious reason
  • a feeling of not having fully emptied your bowels after going to the toilet
  • pain in your abdomen (tummy) or your anus (back passage)
  • persistent bloating


You should also go to see Dr. B C Shah if you have any unexplained bleeding such as:

  • Blood in your urine
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Blood from your back passage
  • Blood when you cough
  • Blood in your vomit


Go to see Dr. B C Shah if you have a mole that:

  • Has an irregular or asymmetrical shape
  • Has an irregular border with jagged edges
  • Has more than one colour (it may be flecked with brown, black, red, pink or white)
  • Is bigger then 7mm in diameter
  • Is itchy, crusting or bleeding

Any of the above changes means that there is a chance you have malignant melanoma (skin cancer).

Unexplained weight loss

You should also go to see Dr. B C Shah if you have lost a lot of weight over the last couple of months that cannot be explained by changes to your diet, exercise or stress.

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