Introduction A biopsy is a medical procedure that involves taking a small sample of tissue so that it can be examined under a microscope. A tissue sample can be taken from almost anywhere on, or in, your body, including the skin, stomach, kidneys, liver and lungs. The term biopsy is often used to refer to both the act of taking the sample and the tissue sample itself. What is a biopsy used for? Biopsies are used to identify abnormal...

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Bariatric Surgery (Gastric Bypass)

Introduction Weight loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is used as a last resort to treat people who are dangerously obese (carrying an abnormally excessive amount of body fat). This type of surgery is available to treat people with potentially life-threatening obesity that will not respond to non-surgical treatments, such as lifestyle changes. Potentially life-threatening obesity is defined as: Having a body mass index (BMI)...

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Introduction Appendicitis is a painful swelling of the appendix, a finger-like pouch connected to the large intestine. It’s located in the lower right-hand side of the abdomen (tummy). The condition starts as a pain in the centre of the abdomen. It then travels to the lower right-hand side and gradually gets worse. Appendicitis is a medical emergency that usually requires urgent surgery to remove the appendix. If left untreated,...

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Anal Fistula Repair

Introduction Some types of fistula have one channel, whereas others branch out into more than one opening. The fistula ends can appear as holes on the surface of the skin around the anus. An anal fistula is painful and can cause bleeding when you go to the toilet. Some fistulae can be connected to the sphincter muscles (the rings of muscles that open and close the anus). When should I see Dr. B C Shah? The common symptoms of an anal...

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Anal Fissure

  Introduction An anal fissure is a tear or ulcer (open sore) that develops in the lining of the anal canal. The most common symptoms of anal fissures include: A sharp pain or burning sensation when passing a stool (poo) Noticing bright red blood on toilet paper or on the toilet seat   The anal canal The anal canal is the last part of the large intestine (colon), and is located between the rectum (a small pouch where stools...

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